Who was the oldest living person whose age has been verified by official documents?

Answer: Jeanne Calment, 122 Years Old

Calment, born February 21, 1875 in Arles, France, a year before Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, and 14 years before the construction of the Eiffel tower, died at the ripe age of 122 years old in August of 1997. The French attributed multiple lifestyle choices to her logevity including eating "two pounds of chocolate a week, treating her skin with olive oil" riding a bike, and giving up smoking at 100 years old. She met Vincent Van Gogh when she was a teenager and lived through both World Wars. 

It's important that Calment's birth was registered in Arles in 1875 because her record has been challenged by a man in Peru, whose family members claim he was born in 1890, and was still living in 2013. That would make him 123 years old, according to a group of journalists from the Associated Press who went to visit him. With that said, birth certificates did not exist in Bolivia until 1940. Births previously were registered with baptism certificates provided by Roman Catholic priests according to NBC News.